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Evaluating Information Sources

Provides guidance on evaluating the credibility of information sources, including books, journals, the open Internet, and primary sources.

Information and Critical Thinking

The Neumann Library follows the Foundation for Critical Thinking model which includes information ("data, facts, reasons, observations, experiences, evidence"*) as one of the elements of reasoning or thought to which intellectual standards must be applied. Critical thinking must be informed by information that is:

  • clear
  • accurate
  • relevant
  • fair
  • sufficient or complete**

* Paul, Richard, and Linda Elder. The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools.Tomales, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2009. (pp.3-5)
**Nosich, Gerald. Learning to Think Things Through: A Guide to Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum. 4th ed. Boston: Pearson, 2012. (pp. 143-144)

But how can I know...?

When we lack the expertise or experience to judge accuracy and completeness, we look to indicators of quality and reliability: the authority of an author, editor, or publisher, or a process such as peer review in which external subject experts consider intellectual standards (clarity, accuracy, significance, etc.) in determining acceptability for publication. Such indicators can't guarantee reliability absolutely, but they're key factors to look for as your own knowledge and critical thinking abilities grow.

The Foundation for Critical Thinking offers templates for thinking through the logic of an article, essay, or chapter, of a textbook, and for evaluating an author's reasoning. If needed, you also may be able to verify basic facts and find background information about a subject by checking recognized reference works and encyclopedias.

Definition of "Scholarly"

College-level assignments usually require the use of scholarly rather than popular information sources. The New Oxford American Dictionary (2nd ed.) defines scholarly as "involving or relating to serious academic study" and "having or showing knowledge, learning, or devotion to academic pursuits" (p. 1516).

Factors to Consider When Evaluating an Information Source


Purpose can be a helpful factor when considering the relevance, fairness, and completeness of an information source.

  • Is the main purpose of the information to inform, persuade, sell a product or service, or to entertain?
  • Is the purpose transparent, or is it hidden? Does that influence the degree to which you should be skeptical of the content?
  • Is the content pertinent to the question you're considering and appropriate in terms of intended audience or the level/nature of the information need?
  • Does it provide new information or a needed perspective or analysis regarding the question at issue?
  • If an opinion is being promoted, is it supported by a balanced, logical presentation of facts?


Process is an important factor in whether an information source is clear, accurate, and complete.

  • How many people were involved in researching, creating, fact-checking, and editing the information source?
  • Was a peer review or editorial review process used prior to publication?
  • Are suitable references or sources indicated? Can facts be verified through other sources?
  • If timeliness is critical to the question at issue and/or subject discipline, how current is the information? How much time has elapsed from initial creation to publication?


We often turn to authority (whether a source is considered trustworthy or credible for a given situation, community, or need) to help ensure accuracy.

  • Are the author's credentials and/or expertise indicated? Could that information be verified if needed?
  • Is the publisher or sponsoring body reputable and a reasonable source for such content?
  • Could either have a point of view or bias that should make you question that authority?


Based in part on the CRAAP Test by Meriam Library, California State Univ., Chico.

Bias is a "prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair" or "a predisposition either for or against something" (The New Oxford American Dictionary, 2nd ed., p. 159). In addition to looking for bias in an information source, consider your own assumptions and predispositions for a particular point of view.

Bias can be reflected through:

Word Choice - Subtle differences in expressions, syntax and diction can signal bias. Look for differences when comparing two articles [or documents] on the same subject.

Omitted Information - Stories, facts and details need to be complete and verified to offer the most objective and informed picture.

Omissions -- intentional and unintentional -- create slanted and/or incomplete pictures. Watch for differing information and the use of anonymous information for clues.

Framing - Framing is about context and how information is presented. Facts may be presented, but they may be put into a context/situation/pattern that emphasizes or de-emphasizes certain elements. Framing can be committed by manipulating the ideas or the actual physical location of an article.

Sources - Where is the article [or document] getting its information? Fair reporting will offer information that comes from a multitude of sources (most of them identifiable) and a variety of constituencies. Relying on just one source or unnamed sources can compromise reliability. Using sources with a vested interest in the topic or omitting source affiliations can slant.

Spin - Offering details or perspectives favorable to one side without adequate time/space/debate for alternate views.

(From Detecting Bias, Miller Library, Keystone College; used with permission)


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