The Neumann Library follows the Foundation for Critical Thinking model which includes information ("data, facts, reasons, observations, experiences, evidence"*) as one of the elements of reasoning or thought to which intellectual standards must be applied. Critical thinking must be informed by information that is:
* Paul, Richard, and Linda Elder. The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools.Tomales, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2009. (pp.3-5)
**Nosich, Gerald. Learning to Think Things Through: A Guide to Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum. 4th ed. Boston: Pearson, 2012. (pp. 143-144)
When we lack the expertise or experience to judge accuracy and completeness, we look to indicators of quality and reliability: the authority of an author, editor, or publisher, or a process such as peer review in which external subject experts consider intellectual standards (clarity, accuracy, significance, etc.) in determining acceptability for publication. Such indicators can't guarantee reliability absolutely, but they're key factors to look for as your own knowledge and critical thinking abilities grow.
The Foundation for Critical Thinking offers templates for thinking through the logic of an article, essay, or chapter, of a textbook, and for evaluating an author's reasoning. If needed, you also may be able to verify basic facts and find background information about a subject by checking recognized reference works and encyclopedias.
College-level assignments usually require the use of scholarly rather than popular information sources. The New Oxford American Dictionary (2nd ed.) defines scholarly as "involving or relating to serious academic study" and "having or showing knowledge, learning, or devotion to academic pursuits" (p. 1516).
Purpose can be a helpful factor when considering the relevance, fairness, and completeness of an information source.
Process is an important factor in whether an information source is clear, accurate, and complete.
We often turn to authority (whether a source is considered trustworthy or credible for a given situation, community, or need) to help ensure accuracy.
Based in part on the CRAAP Test by Meriam Library, California State Univ., Chico.
Bias is a "prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair" or "a predisposition either for or against something" (The New Oxford American Dictionary, 2nd ed., p. 159). In addition to looking for bias in an information source, consider your own assumptions and predispositions for a particular point of view.
Bias can be reflected through:
Word Choice - Subtle differences in expressions, syntax and diction can signal bias. Look for differences when comparing two articles [or documents] on the same subject.
Omitted Information - Stories, facts and details need to be complete and verified to offer the most objective and informed picture.
Omissions -- intentional and unintentional -- create slanted and/or incomplete pictures. Watch for differing information and the use of anonymous information for clues.
Framing - Framing is about context and how information is presented. Facts may be presented, but they may be put into a context/situation/pattern that emphasizes or de-emphasizes certain elements. Framing can be committed by manipulating the ideas or the actual physical location of an article.
Sources - Where is the article [or document] getting its information? Fair reporting will offer information that comes from a multitude of sources (most of them identifiable) and a variety of constituencies. Relying on just one source or unnamed sources can compromise reliability. Using sources with a vested interest in the topic or omitting source affiliations can slant.
Spin - Offering details or perspectives favorable to one side without adequate time/space/debate for alternate views.
(From Detecting Bias, Miller Library, Keystone College; used with permission)
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