A peer-reviewed (or refereed) journal:
(3:15) Explains the academic publishing process for research articles and scholarly journals, including the quality control process of peer review. North Carolina State Univ. Libraries
On the Advanced Search screen, select Articles, enter keywords, then click Search. The results will be indicated as peer-reviewed with a purple icon underneath the title. Using the pane on the left-hand side, apply filters for Peer-reviewed Journals and (if necessary) Articles to limit all results to peer-reviewed journal articles.
In EBSCO databases:
On the Advanced Search screen, type in your keywords, then limit your results to Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals. Look also at Publication Type for Academic Journals.
|Trade Journals||Scholarly Journals|
* Peer review is a process in which experts from the same subject field or profession as the author evaluate a manuscript prior to acceptance for publication.
Based on a chart by Kerry Creelman, Univ. of Houston Libraries, which was adapted from content by Kristina De Voe, Temple Univ. Libraries.
|Trade Journal||Scholarly Journal|
In the field of education, many trade journals (also called professional or practitioner journals) are also peer-reviewed. As a result, when you are looking for scholarly articles describing empirical (primary) research, it can be difficult to determine whether a journal article fits the criteria for an assignment.
Below are some resources and tips for helping you distinguish between scholarly journals and trade journals.
Empirical research is research that is based on observation and measurement of phenomena based on real life experience. These studies typically involve:
Example of an Empirical Research Article:
A literature review is an analysis of existing scholarship on a specific topic. Most research articles begin with a selective literature review in order to provide context for the article, and can either appear as its own section, or as part of the introduction. Some articles are standalone literature reviews; these often provide in-depth descriptions of various studies. Literature reviews are excellent places to start your research, as they often provide a concise summary of the scope and nature of current scholarship on a topic.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis combining results from individual studies to form a larger aggregate of data from which new results may be realized. Challenges to meta-analysis studies include the standardization and comparability of data, as well as the combination of effects that were estimated using different research designs.
Example of a Literature Review Article:
Example of a Meta-Analysis Article:
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