Counseling: Research Methods

Library resources for research and study in Counseling

APA Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology (2012)

Qualitative or Quantitative?

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.) (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
From pp.762-763:

  • qualitative data:  "data that are not expressed numerically, such as descriptions of behavior and experience. If desired, qualitative data can often be expressed quantitatively..."
  • qualitative evaluation:  "an evaluation method that yields narratives gathered primarily from unstructured methods of data collection, naturalistic observation, and existing records..."
  • quantitative data:  "data expressed numerically, such as test scores or measurements of length or width..."
  • quantitative evaluation:  "an evaluation method that yields numerical indices gathered primarily from formal (objective) methods of data collection, systematic and controlled observation, and a prescribed research design..."

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